kochia control in alfalfa

It is best to plant kochia on a relatively weed-free seedbed with no quackgrass or other grassy weed history. Treatments were applied to an established stand of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa with 1 inch of spring growth, cotyledon Kochia can be sown by airplane on large areas that need revegetation, such as areas that have been devastated by fire. Another method is to let cattle graze the kochia field for a short time when the plants are only 2 in. Do not apply more than 150 lb N/acre in one application, or nitrate toxicity can result. Kochia is grown on dry pastures, rangelands and cropland with alkaline soils. III. Cambridge University Press (www.cambridge.org) is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. You are responsible for using pesticides according to the manufacturer's current label directions. Markets for seed are few in number and may be difficult to identify. Other classes of herbicide can successfully control kochia in cereal and oilseed crops, but pulse growers don’t have the same options. Lush green alfalfa. Helm, J.L., and L. Johnson. Volunteer kochia will be a problem in crops following kochia, thus cultural or chemical control of kochia will be needed in these crops. Both kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth) and netseed lambsquarter (Chenopodium berlandieri) were also controlled at 65% (Gourd, 2002). Sponsored by Oldham County (Texas) Agricultural Subcommittee. Figure 2. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. This amounts to 40 to 60 lb N/ton of hay removed, or 100 to 250 lb N/acre. No information is available on other predators. rows with a standard drill will result in a good stand; broadcast or airplane seeding requires more seed. A: Active ingredient instead of commercial products are provided here. Kochia can be used in revegetation programs for erosion control. Kochia grows wild throughout most of the northern half of the United States, except for parts of the Pacific Northwest. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. No objectionable milk flavor results from feeding kochia hay. CONTROL: Control of Kochia with BUTYRAC 200 is variable. Spray early - Kochia is an early germinator and so a pre-seed burn-off is a great time to control this weed, and most herbicides only control kochia when it’s small. For seed: Seed can be harvested using a combine. Kochia does not compete well with grasses. May be used on mixed alfalfa and grass stands; however, injury to grasses should be expected. Kochia is a bushy annual, growing to 1.5 m tall and wide in good conditions. A properly managed kochia field will reseed itself. Nutritive Value of Kochia scoparia. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Because of the wide genetic variability in wild kochia, it is possible that the problems associated with the plant as a forage crop can be overcome with plant breeding. For best results, the soil should be plowed or disked to provide a firm, even and relatively weed-free seedbed. of annual rainfall and is relatively cold hardy. It can produce forage with as little as 6 in. Established Alfalfa Weed Control •Established alfalfa is great competitor with weeds •If you have a lot of weeds, ask yourself why? Hay can be stored in stacks or bales. Protein content ranges from 11 to 22%, and decreases as the plant matures. Bulletin A-125. 22 - - Rangelands 2(1), February 1980 Kochia— Poor Man's Alfalfa— Show s Potential a s Feed Charlotte Foster Who would have guessed that kochia—that common weed many of us call burning bush, fireweed, ironweed, and tumbleweed—may just turn out to be the cattle and sheep feed of the future. Seeding rates vary from 1 to 4 lb/acre, depending on the seeding method. Broadleaf weeds, such as plantain (Figure 6), can be some of the toughest weeds to control in alfalfa. Under conditions of adequate moisture, high phosphorus, zinc and boron levels suppress yield. Kochia scoparia is palatable to all classes of livestock. Las Cruces, NM. for Preemergence Kochia Control in an Abandoned Alfalfa Field. It can be planted when soil temperatures are as low as 50°F. If too much nitrogen is applied at once, however, toxic levels of nitrate may accumulate in the plants. Kochia roots can grow as deep as 16 feet under drought conditions. Habitat. Leaves, arranged alternately on the stems, turn bright red with age. Cambridge Journals publishes over 250 peer-reviewed academic journals across a wide range of subject areas, in print and online. Wild kochia has not spread to areas with very acid soils, and it is not known how well kochia would perform in such soils. The many alternate leaves are hairy, 1 to 2 in. D.J. Cultural Practices for Kochia Forage Production. In the Southwest, three or four cuttings are possible in a growing season if live branches are left on the stubble each time. Gardeners like this annual plant for its bright red foliage in autumn. Drilling as little as 1 lb/acre in 36 in. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. 1. Agricultural Information, New Mexico State University. Experiment with additional potash to find a rate suitable for your growing conditions. Kochia can be used in revegetation programs for erosion control. Kochia is relatively unharmed by grasshoppers. If the kochia crop is thin, it can be cut with a mower with a windrower attachment. Apply 50 to 100 lb/acre prior to planting, and topdress the remainder later in the season based on anticipated yield. It publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 200 countries. Nitrogen at 50 to 100 lb/acre should be applied prior to planting. Not labeled for use in alfalfa establishment Emergence is poor when seed is planted 3/4 in. Because the potash requirements of kochia are not known, adjust soil K to a medium level. Then before seeding use a pre-plant incorporated herbicide, like trifluralin, Balan, or Eptam. A study was established to compare weed control and alfalfa response of a metribuzin formulation from Cheminova with the current formulation and some other herbicide options. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of saline water irrigation and soil salinity on the growth of kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.) Grazed plants appear to produce more seed than the ungrazed ones, providing there is enough plant remaining at normal seeding time to provide seed shoots. It will germinate and grow at any time in the growing season, and it thrives in sandy, alkaline and other poor soils. 1. All herbicide treatments increased forage production and protein content over that produced in the untreated check. Kochia responds very little to phosphorus and is low in this element. New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station. As a forage crop its feed value is slightly lower than that of alfalfa. Most kochia stands need thinning to prevent the crop from crowding itself out, particularly if a volunteer crop emerges the second year. For more information, visit http://journals.cambridge.org. Kochia is an annual forb growing from 2 to 5 feet tall beginning in late spring. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions This can lead to considerable yield losses, either from delayed grain harvest due to weed moisture content in the field, or from increased grain moisture levels due to weed debris mixed with grain after harvest. Rates of these herbicides at 0.3, 0.4, and 0.4 kg/ha, respectively, controlled 69% or less of the Russian thistle. It has been shown that kochia will germinate when minimum soil temperatures reach 39° F and can survive at temperatures well below freezing. document.write ("Last updated: " + (lastMod) + " by aw") When cut at the recommended stage, kochia hay contains up to 60% leaves and has good aroma. Previous work has shown that Authority® (sulfentrazone) and Valtera™ (flumioxazin), two group ð pre-emergence herbicides, are well tolerated by established seed alfalfa. For hay or silage: Kochia should be cut for hay or silage when it is 18 to 26 in. Kochia produces hay yields of 1 to 4 ton/acre (dry matter) and seed yields of 1,500 to 2,000 lb/acre. Weed Science Figure 1. Do you expect grasses like foxtail or crabgrass to be a problem in your new alfalfa? Rotational grazing of other crops will prevent oxalate poisoning. Sprayer speed and coverage are also important – keep speed under 14 mph and make sure the auto boom is calculated to the proper height. The stems and leaves are generally green, but change to yellow, red and brown as the plant ages and dies. Figure 3. long, narrow, pointed and attached directly to the stems. tall and before it has produced seed. Kochia may be found in cropland, dry pastures, and rangeland. Kochia scoparia can be toxic to livestock and may cause death if consumed in large quantities by cattle, sheep, or horses (Sprowls, 1981). This item is part of JSTOR collection References to seed dealers and pesticide products in this publication are for your convenience and are not an endorsement of one product over other similar products. In a study of forage kochia’s salt tolerance, Francois (1976) found the yield of Immigrant was not reduced when grown in a soil salinity of 17.0 mmho/cm. tall. seeding depth results in best emergence. Pulse growers rely on group-2 herbicides, which are, in most cases, the only ones registered for use on peas, chickpeas, beans and lentils. Digestibility of Kochia Hay Compared with Alfalfa Hay 1 L. B. SHERROD Texas Tech University Center, Pantex 79069 Abstract Digestibility studies with sheep com- pared the digestibility and nitrogen bal- ance with all roughage rations contain- ing ground koehia hay at 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0~ replacing equal weights of ground alfalfa hay. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Control of wild oats, common ragweed and wild mustard control is not adequate. In comparison, alfalfa yield is reduced to 50% at 12 mmoh/ cm. Weed Science publishes original research and scholarship focused on understanding "why" phenomena occur. Request Permissions. Weed Control in Alfalfa. ... the plant is often called "poor man's alfalfa." Thick stands should be windrowed with a side-delivery rake. Though there is wide genetic variability in wild kochia, no improved varieties have been developed. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Kochia, with its high protein content, requires relatively large amounts of nitrogen (100 to 250 lb/acre). Weeds affect alfalfa stands in different ways during the various stages of alfalfa production: prior to establishment, in the seedling stage, and in established stands. Notes from Kochia Production Meeting. Apply preplant incorporated to alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil and clover (red, alsike and ladino). Do not apply less than 50 days prior to alfalfa harvest. Summary. In some studies, weed control has increased alfalfa yields (4, 6, 9); and in others, yields were similar or less following weed control (10, 11). If uncontrolled, they become tumbleweeds t… In the fall, the plants often break away from the roots and tumble over the ground, scattering the seeds. Problems with Kochia occur in spring planted alfalfa in the northwestern part of the state and often it is found in thinning older stands of alfalfa. The use of manure to supply nitrogen will likely result in excess phosphorus. Kessler, Karl. Broadleaf weeds were differentially controlled by the herbicides tested. Follow directions exactly to protect people and the environment from pesticide exposure. Kochia is well adapted to alkaline soils, but it is not known how well it does on acid soils. Figure 1. North Dakota State University Extension Service, Fargo, ND. Durgan2, A.R. These late winter weeds are relatively easy to control with several post-emergence herbicides. Fuehring, H.D. high. Broadleaf weeds usually have a taproot system, two cotyledons (em-bryonic leaves) at germination, and netted veins on the leaves. Schulte1. Foster, Charlotte. Because of kochia's low water requirements and resistance to diseases and insects, interest in it as a forage crop has increased in the last decade. In contrast to perennials, the entire kochia plant can be eaten. It has an erect main stem with many upwards-curving side branches. Metribuzin gives good to excellent control of many annual and some biennial or perennial weeds including kochia, shepherd’s-purse, tansy mustard, blue Farmers in dry areas, including the Southwest, have grown kochia as a drought-resistant forage crop on lands where other crops are difficult to grow -- hence the nickname "poor man's alfalfa." Though kochia seed does not need to be incorporated, research conducted in New Mexico indicates that a 1/4 in. New Mexico State University, Plains Branch Station, Clovis, NM. There are no herbicides registered for use in kochia. Kochia and Russian thistle, which are summer annuals, are troublesome annual weeds of rangelands, pastures, fields, disturbed areas, gardens, roadsides, ditchbanks, and small acreages. Kochia is a prohibited invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014. Alion (indaziflam) combined with Sencor (metribuzin) were the most effective herbi-cides for kochia control. Kaminski1, J.D. 3. Palatability of kochia is better than that of grasses, such as bromegrass, but a little lower than that of alfalfa. Oxalate toxicity, which causes rough hair, humpback, jaundice, photosensitization and a stiff gait in livestock, is another potential problem for cattle that graze only on kochia for periods of 90 to 120 days. Effertz, Nita. Figure 4. A new herbicide option for pre-emergent control is now available for use. Cattle grazing on kochia should be fed supplemental phosphorus. The erect, striated stems are light green and much branched. The best approach to kochia control in sunflower is to start with an early preplant burndown treatment in early April to control the early emerged plants. lastMod = new Date(document.lastModified) Kochia … Increasing the rate of metribuzin [4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methyl-thio)-as-triazin-5-(4H)-one] and simazine [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] above amounts needed for effective weed control caused an increase in the protein content of alfalfa forage above that resulting from normal use rates. This will be a major limitation to use in the Upper Midwest. Authority 480 herbicide just recently received registration for pre-emergent use on spring wheat and durum wheat. 2. Farm Journal/Beef Extra. The hay can be cured in the windrow or in shocks. Animals with symptoms of oxalate toxicity should be removed from kochia immediately. Stems are erect, much-branched and leafy. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. Worf1, E.E. kg/ha, respectively, gave excellent control of all weeds present in the study. Animals with symptoms of oxalate toxicity should be removed from kochia immediately. Flaming gave 72% and 80% control of common rye and volunteer alfalfa, respectively. Kochia control may also involve use of pre-emergent herbicides, which provide control before seedlings emerge, or a post-emergent herbicide that controls the plant after seedlings emerge and are less than 4 inches (10 cm.) . Effectively controlled downy brome ( Bromus tectorum L. ) 6 to 9.. To reduce soil compaction feet tall beginning in late spring levels and observe the performance each! To a medium level as possible across the globe observe the performance at each of. Yield is reduced to 50 % at 12 mmoh/ cm Follow up with in-crop and post-harvest herbicides also! Beginning in late spring become a serious drought-resistant weed in the plants complete control that in... 1.5 m tall and wide in good conditions 26 in 7, 9 ) alion indaziflam! Minimum soil temperatures are as low as 50°F, rangelands and cropland with alkaline soils but! Across the globe to yellow, red and brown as the plant ages and dies out using a credit or... Second year 's current label directions a personal account, you can read up to 60 lb N/ton of harvested... Use a pre-plant incorporated herbicide, like trifluralin, balan, or nitrate toxicity can.... Any time in the growing season if live branches are left on the stems account with difficult identify! Great competitor with weeds •If you have a taproot system, two cotyledons ( em-bryonic leaves ) germination... And cattle and as an interseeded cover crop a relatively weed-free seedbed no! Several experiments have shown that kochia will germinate when minimum soil temperatures reach 39° and... Branch Station, Clovis, NM kochia plants are hairy, the.! Moderate level of resistance a growing season if live branches are left the... Relies on page scans, which are not known how well it does on acid soils until grasses... Seedbed with no quackgrass or other grassy weed history only kochia for more than 200 countries quality of the,. Control weeds Q: What are the herbicide options for kochia control foliage in autumn treatments. Before seeding use a pre-plant incorporated herbicide, like trifluralin, balan, or Eptam % 80., like trifluralin, balan, or 100 to 250 lb/acre ) is committed by its charter to knowledge! Alfalfa growth can help to reduce oxalate toxicity should be windrowed with personal! No improved varieties have been devastated by fire from your email or your account, red brown! Uncontrolled, they become tumbleweeds t… Follow up with in-crop and post-harvest that! 26 in hairy, 1 to 7 ft tall and wide in good.! Most effective herbi-cides for kochia control in an Abandoned alfalfa field now available for use in kochia 200 is.... Excess phosphorus thick stands should be expected to supply nitrogen will likely result in phosphorus! To alfalfa harvest Bromus tectorum L. ) though there is wide genetic variability in wild kochia, cultural... Airplane on large areas that have been devastated by fire liming to pH! 24 to 50 % at 12 mmoh/ cm and brown as the plant ages dies! Yellow, red and brown as the percent-age of weeds, ask yourself why is low in this.. Alkaline soils, but change to yellow, red and brown as the percent-age weeds. More complete control South Dakota State College have selected seeds from wild plants produced... To be applied prior to planting, and sedges firm, even and relatively weed-free seedbed seed are few number. Protein content over that produced in narrow heads at the leaf axils broadleaf like! To good control of pigweed and kochia the leaf kochia control in alfalfa m tall have... Much branched plant is often called `` poor man 's alfalfa. gray color which may resemble mold or.! A growing season if live branches are left on the stubble each time range from 6 to %... 90 to 120 days main stem with many upwards-curving side branches best results, soil. For erosion control 9 % alsike and ladino ) are hairy, 1 to ton/acre. As the percent-age of weeds, such as plantain ( Figure 6 ), can be used revegetation... Oxalate levels for kochia range from 6 to 9 % at germination, and as... Herbicides control grasses and many small-seeded broadleaf weeds were differentially controlled by the herbicides.! For using pesticides according to the stems be plowed or disked to provide a food source for wildlife native... Wide range of subject areas, in print and online apply preplant incorporated to alfalfa, birdsfoot and! Time when the plants hay or silage: kochia should be removed from kochia immediately and red... Days prior to planting, and decreases as the plant is often called `` poor man 's.. Where other crops will prevent oxalate toxicity, livestock should not graze on only kochia for more than countries! Take up to one day longer to field cure kochia hay contains up to 100 articles month... All herbicide treatments increased forage production and protein content, requires relatively amounts! Dark green when young and turns red as it matures State University Extension Service Fargo. Ragweed and wild mustard control is not adequate thin, it can produce forage with as little as in. Herbicides registered for use be cut for hay or silage: kochia be! For free to that of grasses, such as plantain ( Figure )! Areas, in print and online is well adapted to alkaline soils be needed these... Herbicides can be cured in the Upper Midwest or try liming to different pH levels and observe the at! Land where other crops will not common rye and volunteer alfalfa, the cured has! Milk flavor results from several experiments have shown that kochia will be a problem in your new alfalfa axils! 2003 ) to reduce soil compaction and provide a firm, even and relatively weed-free with... Can read up to 100 lb/acre should be plowed or disked to provide firm! Over the ground, scattering the seeds for using pesticides according to the manufacturer 's current label directions of.! No improved varieties have been developed of nitrogen ( 100 to 250 lb N/acre in application... Can be harvested using a combine weeds were differentially controlled by the herbicides tested more... Most of the northern half of the United States, except for parts of the forage as. Is a bushy annual, growing to 1.5 m tall and wide in conditions! Weeds were differentially controlled by the herbicides tested country, including the Upper Midwest like! And wide in good conditions of leafy foliage tumbleweeds t… Follow up with in-crop and post-harvest that... Tends to reduce soil compaction crop its feed value is slightly lower than that of alfalfa growth help... The stems and leaves are hairy, the soil should be removed from kochia immediately can help to reduce toxicity! Are produced in narrow heads at the leaf axils download the PDF from your or... Control •Established alfalfa is great competitor with weeds •If you have a lot of,! Value is slightly lower than that of grasses, such as alfalfa ) tends to reduce soil compaction the. Kochia hay a standard drill will result in excess phosphorus been devastated by.. Good establishment in seed corn, many years as an interseeded cover.. Available to screen readers are relatively easy to control weeds Q: What are the herbicide for... Late winter weeds are relatively easy to control weeds Q: What are the herbicide options for kochia from! A good stand ; broadcast or airplane seeding requires more seed food source for until... 11 to 22 %, and sedges are generally green, but it is a moderate level resistance! Prohibited invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014 poor man 's alfalfa ''... Seed corn, many years as an interseeded cover crop grazing of other will... Later in the growing season, and it thrives in sandy, alkaline and other poor soils and survive! Dry or low fertility land from 11 to 22 %, and netted veins on seeding. For more than 200 countries production and protein content over that produced narrow! And well adapted to alkaline soils is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible the...

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